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Yoga Sutras of Patanjaly
Living practices without longing (sadhana) are the second step
2.1 tapaḥ-svādhyāyeśvara-praṇidhānāni kriyā-yogaḥ
Kriya Yoga is the perception (pranidhanani) of the wholeness (ishwara) through meditation on the ego-mind (swadhyay) and the burning out of all conditioning (tapah), using certain practices.
2.2 samādhi-bhāvanārthaḥ kleśa-tanūkaraṇārthaś ca
It (kriya yoga) reduces conflict and develops equanimity in attitude and sentiments (samadhi bhavana).
2.3 avidyāsmitā-rāga-dveṣābhiniveśāḥ kleśāḥ
Indulgence (abhiniveshah) in the following are the root causes of suffering (kleshah):
2.4 avidyā kṣetram uttareṣāṃ prasupta-tanu-vicchinnodārāṇām
The incapacity to learn (avidya) is the inability to see what is. Avidya can be manifested subtly (tanu) or appear dormant (prasupta) and can be scattered unevenly (vichchina) or ever present (daranam).
2.5 (I) anityāśuci-duḥkhānātmasu nitya-śuci-sukhātma-khyātir avidyā
Avidya is the non-understanding of ‘what is’. Avidya is the illusion that results in the ephemeral appearing as eternal, of the profane appearing as sacred, of suffering as pleasure, of self ignorance as self-knowledge.
2.6 (II) dṛg-darśana-śaktyor ekātmatevāsmitā
The dichotomy between the eternal self (atma) and the ego (asmita) occurs due to the separation of the observer from the observed (drig-darshana).
2.7 (III) sukhānuśayī rāgaḥ
Seeking gratification leads to attachment (ragah).
2.8 (IV) duḥkhānuśayī dveṣaḥ
Suffering is a consequence of aversion and hostility (dwesha).
2.9 (V) sva-rasa-vāhī viduṣo '-pi tathā-rūḍho '-bhiniveśaḥ
Indulgence in the continuity of I-ness and ego (swarasa-vahi) is sustained by conditioning and cultural inputs which dominate even the learned (vidusoapi).
2.10 te pratiprasava-heyāḥ sūkṣmāḥ
Subtle (psychological) suffering is diminished by inward observation/reflection (pratiprasavah).
2.11 dhyāna-heyās tad-vṛttayaḥ
The movement of mental suffering can be reduced by meditative awareness.
2.12 kleśa-mūlaḥ karmāśayo dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-janma-vedanīyaḥ
The root cause of suffering is the reservoir of conditioning (karma) obviously or unwittingly collected since birth.
2.13 sati mūle tad-vipāko jātyāyur-bhogāḥ
The existence of this root (this reservoir of conditioning) sets off the whirlpool of life’s trials and tragedies.
2.14 te hlāda-paritāpa-phalāḥ puṇyāpuṇya-hetutvāt
And the result is pleasure and pain, virtue and vice.
2.15 pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkhair guṇa-vṛtti-virodhāc ca duḥkhameva sarvaṃ vivekinaḥ
For one who understands (vivekinah), pleasure and pain are both painful. They are the consequence of impressions and influences (samskara), of pain arising from traits, tendencies (gunas), mind (vritti) and the mind's everlasting indulgence in duality (virodhah) (and opposites) – all leading to sorrow only.
2.16 heyaṃ duḥkham anāgatam
Sorrow that is yet to come can be reduced or avoided.
2.17 draṣṭṛ-dṛśyayoḥ saṃyogo heya-hetuḥ
This is possible through a fusion between the observer and the observed.
2.18 prakāśa-kriyā-sthiti-śīlaṃ bhūtendriyātmakaṃ bhogāpavargārthaṃdṛśyam
Pure observation (drishyam) leads to the emergence of a unitary movement between matter and sense organs (bhutendriyatmakaram). The purpose of this is to be liberated from experience (bhoga-aparvarga-artham) and to be established in the perfect order of enlightened action.
2.19 viśeṣāviśeṣa-liṅga-mātrā-liṅgāni guṇa-parvāṇi
There are four stages of traits and tendencies (gunas), from profound (vishesha i.e. gunatit), to not so profound (avishesha i.e. satvic), to only a trace of profoundness (lingamatra i.e. rajasic), to none at all (alinga i.e. tamasic).
2.20 draṣṭā dṛśi-mātraḥ śuddho '-pi pratyayānupaśyaḥ
The real observer (no-mind) is only pure observation, without contamination from the separative observer (mind). Pure observation subtly sees through direct perception (pratyaya).
2.21 tadartha eva dṛśyasyātmā
The purpose of pure observation is the dissolution of the separative observer and the emergence of the eternal observer.
2.22 kṛtārthaṃ prati naṣṭam apy anaṣṭaṃ tad, anya-sādhāraṇatvāt
A glimpse of the otherness (kritartham) destroys everything although nothing is destroyed (anya-sadharanatvat) in relation to all the common cognitive activities.
2.23 sva-svāmi-śaktyoḥ sva-rūpopalabdhi-hetuḥ saṃyogaḥ
The purpose of the fusion of the separative observer (swa) and the real observer (swami) is to be in one's natural state (swa-rupopalabdhi).
2.24 tasya hetur avidyā
This fusion is blocked by a lack of inner awareness (avidya).
2.25 tadabhāvāt saṃyogābhāvo hānaṃ. tad dṛśeḥ kaivalyam
Bondage (hanam) is due to the absence of this fusion, which in turn is a lack of awareness of the ‘otherness’, whereas a glimpse of ‘the otherness’ is liberation (kaivalyam).
2.26 viveka-khyātir aviplavā hānopāyaḥ
Discrimination, wakefulness and non-fluctuation are means of avoiding bondage.
2.27 tasya saptadhā prānta-bhūmiḥ prajñā
There are seven stages towards wisdom – intelligence (i.e. purusha).
2.28 yogāṅgānuṣṭhānād aśuddhi-kṣaye jñāna-dīptir, āviveka-khyāteḥ
2.29 yama-niyamāsana-prāṇāyāma-pratyāhāra-dhāraṇā-dhyāna-samādhayo'-ṣṭāv aṅgāni
Eight aspects of yoga life are as follows:
2.30 ahiṃsā-satyāsteya-brahmacaryāparigrahā yamāḥ
2.31 jāti-deśa-kāla-samayānavacchinnāḥ sārvabhaumā mahā-vratam
Regardless of birth, place or circumstances yamas are important commitments (mahavratam).
2.32 śauca-saṃtoṣa-tapaḥ-svādhyāyeśvara-praṇidhānāni niyamāḥ
The five niyamas are:
2.33 vitarka-bādhane pratipakṣa-bhāvanam
To be trapped in argumentative consciousness generates adversaries and conflict.
2.34 vitarkā hiṃsādayaḥ kṛta-kāritānumoditā lobha-krodha-moha-pūrvakāmṛdu-madhyādhimātrā duḥkhājñānānanta-phalā itipratipakṣa-bhāvanam
Whether mild, medium or intense; argument, greed, anger, illusion and violence (whether approved of, or by oneself, or done through others) will lead to unlimited sorrow, ignorance and hostility.
2.35 ahiṃsā-pratiṣṭhāyāṃ tat-saṃnidhau vaira-tyāgaḥ
There is a cessation of hostility in the vicinity of one who is installed in non-violence.
2.36 satya-pratiṣṭhāyāṃ kriyā-phalāśrayatvam
The consequence of actions by one who is established in truthfulness forms a good basis for right living.
2.37 asteya-pratiṣṭhāyāṃ sarva-ratnopasthānam
All the gems of living are available to those who are installed in non-addiction.
2.38 brahmacarya-pratiṣṭhāyāṃ vīrya-lābhaḥ
Indomitable energy is gained when one is established in sky-consciousness (bramacharya).
2.39 aparigraha-sthairye janma-kathaṃtā-saṃbodhaḥ
One who is steady in non-acquisitiveness is available to the supreme wisdom that leads to the perception of the wonders of birth and death.
2.40 śaucāt svāṅga-jugupsā parair asaṃsargaḥ
Cleanliness in all ways leads to freedom from body-consciousness and attachment to other bodies.
2.41 sattva-śuddhi-saumanasyaikāgryendriya-jayātma-darśana-yogyatvāni ca
Through pure being (rather than becoming) emerges equanimity, freedom from distractions and sensuality, and glimpses of the eternal self.
2.42 saṃtoṣād anuttamaḥ sukha-lābhaḥ
Contentment (non-craving) gives rise to supreme happiness.
2.43 kāyendriya-siddhir aśuddhi-kṣayāt tapasaḥ
Living with austerity and restraint causes the disappearance of disharmony in the structure of body-mind and the emergence of perfection.
2.44 svādhyāyād iṣṭa-devatā-saṃprayogaḥ
Meditation on the nature of the ego-self causes its melting into benediction and sanctity.
2.45 samādhi-siddhir īśvara-praṇidhānāt
Being established in equanimity is perfection Then holistic perception begins.
2.46 sthira-sukham āsanam
Stillness and steadiness are only possible when one’s posture is comfortable.
Eternal freedom (ananta) is the release (shaithilya) from expectations and effort (prayatna). This means being equally indifferent.
2.48 tato dvandvānabhighātaḥ
Then conflict and agitation can have no impact.
2.49 tasmin sati śvāsa-praśvāsayor gati-vicchedaḥ prāṇāyāmaḥ
Then consolidate this freedom from mind by practising pranayam. This is inhalation and exhalation with an intervening pause (an internalisation process).
2.50 bāhyābhyantara-stambha-vṛttir deśa-kāla-saṃkhyābhiḥparidṛṣṭo dīrgha-sūkṣmaḥ
The health and age of the body determine the duration, subtlety and frequency of pranayam. Pranayam can be classified as follows: Internal (as indicated above) External (anulom-vilom-vastrika) Retention (stambha or kumbhaka) Or, it may happen in rounds (vrittih) of inhalation, retention and exhalation.
2.51 bāhyābhyantara-viṣayākṣepī caturthaḥ
Another kind of pranayam concerns watching outer influences and inner conditioned reflexes in rhythm with the breath and thus transcending such influences and reflexes (this is called adjapajap or anapanasati).
2.52 tataḥ kṣīyate prakāśāvaraṇam
Thereby that which covers the light starts disappearing (this is meditation – dhyana – that removes the cover of borrowed knowledge and ushers us into the light of our own knowing).
2.53 dhāraṇāsu ca yogyatā manasaḥ
The separative consciousness is then eligible to be available to that which holds all life.
2.54 sva-viṣayāsaṃprayoge cittasya sva-rūpānukāra ivendriyāṇāṃpratyāhāraḥ
Detachment (pratyahar) implies avoiding involvement in selfishness (swavisaya asamprayoge) and sensual (indriyanam) indulgences (anukarah) of the mind.
2.55 tataḥ paramā vaśyatendriyāṇām
Thereafter occurs the supreme mastery over sensuality (mind).Download the Message in PDF format: Message 56: Yoga Sutra – Sadhana Pada (English)